Sunday, January 12, 2020

Ethical Perspective on Assisted Suicide Essay

Moral and ethical debates attempted to resolves controversial issues but never seem to end with everyone agreeing. Often these ethical and moral debates are complex and involve opinions persuaded by religion or customs and have legal implications to consider. Physician assisted death is one of these very complex and controversial issues that all people will never agree on. Many questions arise in the debate of physician assisted death such as patients’ rights, physicians controlling the right if someone lives or dies, a patience’s mental state, a family member’s rights, religious beliefs of the parties involved and the law. Philosophers attempt to explain the different theories that people will use to argue their belief systems in terms of logic and reasoning. For example, some people may take the position of a deontologist who would argue that it is our moral duty to support and sustain life therefore assisted suicide should not be allowed. Unfortunately, this very emotional thought provoking debate is not a â€Å"black and white issue,† as most ethical arguments are not. In the situation of physician assisted death I disagree with the deontologist point of view that it is immoral for a physician to assist a patient in suicide. I believe as some relativist due, that as long as the patient is fully capable of making this decision and the patient is in a constant state of agony, then the patient has the right to make the choice to live or die. A relativist believes that morals are only relative to that particular society and if physician assisted death was considered moral in that group then it would be considered a moral act. Neither theory is without flaws as some deontologist even share my point of view and some relativist can be very extreme in what they feel is relative to being morally right or wrong. The bottom line is that people will probably never completely agree on this subject. Ethical Perspective on Physician Assisted Death Physician assisted death is also referred to as PAD. Physician assisted death is the more politically and ethical term versus physician assisted suicide. There is also a difference that should be made known between euthanasia and PAD. In a situation of euthanasia the physician administers the lethal does by injection to the patient ending the patient’s life. In physician assisted death the doctor write a prescription for a pill that the patient oluntarily administers themselves that will end their own life. Physician assisted death is now legal in two states, where Organ passed the law in 1994 and Washington state passed the law in 2008. That means in forty eight states it is against the law to assist the patient either directly or indirectly in ending the patient’s life. If a physician even provides information to the patient that would f acilitate their death the doctor can face criminal charges and lose their medical license. Many people are familiar with the radical doctor Dr. Jack Kevorkian who used the method of euthanasia. Dr. Kevorkian is responsible for euthanatizing over 130 people some of which were either clinically depressed or terminally ill. Dr. Kevorkian created a huge debate across the United States that gave rise to many questions such as to the legality of the constitutional laws and ethical perspectives. Laws that are passed don’t not always represent a societies ethical views and vice versus a, some ethical standards are against the law. If everyone had the perspective of relativists, then the laws would vary from city to city. For example, every other city could be for physician assisted death or against it creating a checkered board effect of laws that very from city to city. This because the relativist believes that morals are only relative to what the society believes. Dr. Kevorkian was tried in a Michigan court on four of assisting suicide and was convicted of one count which has videotaped and released to the popular television show â€Å"60 Ethical Perspective on Physician Assisted Death Minutes. † Another doctor by the name of Derek Humphry’s whose wife died a slow agonizing death by cancer started a foundation in his wife’s memory, called the Hemlock Society to provide information to dying patients on how to take the â€Å"final exit. † (Howard Ball 2012) Medical technology has advanced over the years and has allowed us to live healthier and more active life styles. However, with medical advancement came the ability to prolong life and at times keeping patients alive beyond what I feel God has called them to live. At the point in life when a person is being kept alive by a machine breathing for them and intravenous nutrition being given, one has to ask themselves is this â€Å"has medical treatment gone too far by interfering with a natural part of dying. † It seems medical technology has crossed the line at times because it is no longer a matter of improving the quality of life but prolong a natural death. There is a moral dilemma that is taken place where doctors are making billions of dollars by providing long term health care to patients beyond what nature has called for. During the twenty century medical technology advance to point of creating an epidemic where people could live longer lives but it didn’t always guarantee a quality life. Without being able to take care of oneself or enjoy the life they worked hard to create many people feel they don’t want to live a life of suffering. Many people feel they have lost their dignity and don’t want their friends and family to remember them in a feeble state of being. This brings up the question of what is happiness and considered quality of life. I believe the deontologist perspective takes away a human beings right to choose how a person wants to live. A deontologist will argue that life must be sustained because it is our moral duty but isn’t it our moral duty to end a human beings suffering or to let people die a natural Ethical Perspective on Physician Assisted Death death? In fact some deontologists do believe that morals are obligations based on religious beliefs and they don’t support sustaining life in every situation. For example, if a woman was pregnant and the baby was going to cause the death of the mother then they may believe it is acceptable to terminate the pregnancy to sustain the life of the mother. Yet others could argue â€Å"who is to say what is natural,† and when someone should die. Many people who support legalizing patient assisted suicide believe it is the patient’s right to die with dignity but other would insist that society has a moral obligation to preserve life. The relativist would state if the society believes it is moral to condone patient assisted suicide then for the society it is morally correct. â€Å"The view of ethical relativism regards values as determined by one’s own ethical standards, often those provided by one’s own culture and background. Rather than insisting that there are moral absolutes, moral claims must be interpreted in terms of how they reflect a person’s viewpoint; moral claims are then said to be â€Å"right in a given culture† or â€Å"wrong for a given society. (Mosser, K 2010) Those that argue against physician assisted death will argue it is our duty to protect and preserve all life. People will argue their points of views using logic, reasoning and provide supporting evidence. However, in the case of ethical debates there often is not any evidence to support a claim on either side of the issue. Consequently, as much as people will try to argue their point of view with reasoning an d logic their emotions can get in the way and make it difficult to persuade the other person. Many times the family is involved in the case of physician assisted death and each family member may have different ethical beliefs then the patient. This can make the decision even more painful as we taken into consideration the effects our decisions Ethical Perspective on Physician Assisted Death have on other people. Philosophers attempt to explain how people will argue their point of view by providing different ethical theories as with relativism and deontology. The deontologist believes that it is our moral duty to protect and preserve life and that physician assisted suicide is an immoral act. Rather than looking at the consequences of an act, deontology looks at the reason for which an act is done, and the rule according to which one choose to act. Deontology doesn’t deny that acts have consequences; rather, insists that those consequences should not play a role in our moral evaluation of such acts. †(Mosser K 2010) Under the deontology theory a person would claim that it is wrong for a physician to assist a patient in committing suicide because the result is death and we are to preserve life not assisting in taking their life. Deontology and Ethics 2013) This theory would provide that there is no reason good enough to go against ones moral and civic duty even if it means allowing someone to suffer in pain, which ignores the patients’ rights. The terminally ill patient not only wants to live with having their quality of life and having dignity but they also want to die with dignity. The terminally ill patient has few options such as suicide or living in extreme pain. Some patients are too ill to even get out of bed to be able to commit suicide. Terminally ill patients that are suffering should not be made to feel demoralized for wanting to end their suffering. If the patient has paid into a life insurance fund all their life the company mostly likely will not pay their loved ones death benefits if they commit such an act. The problem is patient assisted death is not recognized as a medically necessary procedure. There is also a great stigma that comes along with committing suicide that the families have to live with after their loved one has died. I belief in the individual autonomy Ethical Perspective on Physician Assisted Death Many family members feel disgraced that their loved one acted against their religious beliefs. (Lois Snyder, JD, and Daniel P. Sulmasy 2001) Family members can find themselves in court fighting again other members of their family to keep their loved ones alive. Going to court can be an emotionally painful process and doing so puts the patient through more emotional agony. Many families will break apartment because their ethical views differ so greatly. Roman Catholic Church has been the one biggest contesters of physician assisted death. Ethical arguments are based on beliefs systems that are learned through culture and religion therefore are only relative to that person or society. The One of the issues with relativism is that is a person’s beliefs can be too extreme and farfetched. Under the law of relativism any belief system relevant to that person would be considered ethical even murdering someone. Many doctors and nurses struggle with their feeling on patient assisted death because their morals and ethical views tell them it is wrong to assist a patient in death but they have great sympathy seeing their patients in pain and they want to help. Also, doctors take the Hippocratic Oath which states that doctors will never harm their patients but I argue the facts that prolonging death is harming the patient and takes away their constitutional right to choose death. Many religions believe as deontologist do in that is against their religion to assist someone in procuring their own death but that is exactly it the issue that it their belief system and not everyone’s. The constitutional represents the Liberty Due process clause that says it is a fundamental right for terminally ill patients to die with dignity by the assistance of a medical professional. Lawyers have argued the fourteenth amendment which allows a doctor to remove life support as the last dying will and testament of the patient yet a physician cannot medically assist a patient in ending the life of a terminally ill person who is verbally requesting it. (Howard Ball 2012) Ethical Perspective on Physician Assisted Death Moral and ethical debates spark heated debates and cause controversial issues and never seem to end with everyone agreeing. These ethical and moral debates are complex and involve opinions persuaded by religion or customs nd have legal implications that must be consider. Physician assisted death a very complex and controversial issues that all people will never agree on. There are a lot questions that arise in the debate over physician assisted death such as patients’ rights, physicians controlling the right if someone lives or dies, a patience’s mental state, a family member’s rights, religious beliefs of the parties involved and th e law. It seems that both theories have their flaws. The relativist can be too extreme in their view points because anything can be considered moral if the society feels it is relative. While the deontologist view point is too constrictive and only takes into consideration that a person’s morals are their obligation and a duty to others. The deontologist would ignore the right of the patients even if they were suffering to conform to their obligations and moral duties. I am partial to believing that the patient has a right to choose if they want to live or die under certain circumstances. I believe that morals and ethics are not built on one theory alone but on many parts of theories that consist of logic and reasoning. People will continue to understand the different ethical theories that explain why certain societies believe the way they do. Some people may take the position of a deontologist who would argue that it is our moral duty to support and sustain life therefore assisted suicide should not be allowed. Unfortunately, this very emotional debate has many dynamics, as most ethical arguments do. In the situation of physician assisted death I disagree with the deontologist point of view and feel it is immoral to take away a patients right to end their own suffering. I believe to a certain extent as some relativist believe, that as long as the patient is fully capable of making Ethical Perspective on Physician Assisted Death this decision and the patient is in a constant state of agony, then the patient has the right to make the choice to live or die. The relativist believes that morals are only relative to that particular society and if physician assisted death was considered moral in that group then it would be considered a moral act. Each theory has flaws. Some deontologist share my point of view and some relativist can be very extreme in what they feel is relative to being morally right or wrong. The bottom line is people will probably never completely agree on this subject. As our society evolves and continues to become more liberal in their ethical views on controversial topics such as gay marriage, abortion and personal liberties more states will continue to pass laws support physician assisted death.

Saturday, January 4, 2020

Computer Network Data

Sample details Pages: 15 Words: 4422 Downloads: 2 Date added: 2017/06/26 Category Information Systems Essay Type Essay any type Did you like this example? Networking and Management Introduction A computer network is a connection of two or more computers in order to share resources and data. These shared resources can include devices like printers and other resources like electronic mail, internet access, and file sharing. A computer network can also be seen as a collection of Personal computers and other related devices which are connected together, either with cables or wirelessly, so that they can share information and communicate with one another. Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Computer Network Data | Information Systems Dissertations" essay for you Create order Computer networks vary in size. Some networks are needed for areas within a single office, while others are vast or even span the globe. Network management has grown as a career that requires specialized training, and comes with management of important responsibilities, thus creating future opportunities for employment. The resulting expected increase in opportunities should be a determining and persuasive factor for graduates to consider going into network management. Computer networking is a discipline of engineering that involves communication between various computer devices and systems. In computer networking, protocols, routers, routing, and networking across the public internet have specifications that are defined in RFC documents. Computer networking can be seen as a sub-category of computer science, telecommunications, IT and/or computer engineering. Computer networks also depend largely upon the practical and theoretical applications of these engineering and scientifi c disciplines. In the vastly technological environment of today, most organisations have some kind of network that is used every day. It is essential that the day-to-day operations in such a company or organisation are carried out on a network that runs smoothly. Most companies employ a network administrator or manager to oversee this very important aspect of the company’s business. This is a significant position, as it comes with great responsibilities because an organisation will experience significant operational losses if problems arise within its network. Computer networking also involves the setting up of any set of computers or computer devices and enabling them to exchange information and data. Some examples of computer networks include: Local area networks (LANs) that are made up of small networks which are constrained to a relatively small geographic area. Wide area networks (WANs) which are usually bigger than local area networks, and cover a large geographic area. Wireless LANs and WANs (WLAN WWAN). These represent the wireless equivalent of the Local Area Network and Wide Area Networks Networks involve interconnection to allow communication with a variety of different kinds of media, including twisted-pair copper wire cable, coaxial cable, optical fiber, and various wireless technologies. The devices can be separated by a few meters (e.g. via Bluetooth) or nearly unlimited distances (e.g. via the interconnections of the Internet. (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Computer_networking) TASK 1 TCP connection congestion control Every application, whether it is a small or large application, should perform adaptive congestion control because applications that perform congestion control use a network more efficiently and are generally of better performance. Congestion control algorithms prevent the network from entering Congestive Collapse. Congestive Collapse is a situation where, although the network links are being heavily utilized, very little useful work is being done. The network will soon begin to require applications to perform congestion control, and those applications which do not perform congestion control will be harshly penalized by the network, probably in the form of preferentially dropping their packets during times of congestion (https://www.psc.edu/networking/projects/tcpfriendly/) Principles of Congestion Control Informally, congestion entails that too many sources are sending too much data, and sending them too fast for the network to handle. TCP Congestion Control is not the same as flow control, as there are several differences between TCP Congestion Control and flow control. Other principles of congestion control include Global versus point-2-point, and orthogonal issues. Congestion manifests itself by causing loss of packets (buffer overflow at routers), and long delays (queuing in router buffers). Also, during congestion, there is no explicit feedback from network routers, and there is congestion inferred from end-system observed loss. In network-assisted congestion control, routers provide feedback to end systems, and the explicit rate sender sends at –Choke Packet. Below are some other characteristics and principles of congestion control: When CongWin is below Threshold, sender in slow-start phase, window grows exponentially. When CongWin is above Threshold, sender is in congestion-avoidance phase, window grows linearly. When a triple duplicate ACK occurs, Threshold set to CongWin/2 and CongWin set to Threshold. When timeout occurs, Threshold set to CongWin/2 and CongWin is set to 1 MSS. Avoidance of Congestion It is necessary for the TCP sender to use congestion avoidance and slow start algorithms in controlling the amount of outstanding data that is injected into a network. In order to implement these algorithms, two variables are added to the TCP per-connection state. The congestion window (cwnd) is a sender-side limit on the amount of data the sender can transmit into the network before receiving an acknowledgment (ACK), while the receivers advertised window (rwnd) is a receiver-side limit on the amount of outstanding data. The minimum of cwnd and rwnd governs data transmission. (Stevens, W. and Allman, M. 1998) TCP Flow Control In TCP flow control, the receiving side of the TCP connection possesses a receive buffer, and a speed-matching service which matches the send rate to the receiving application’s drain rate. During flow control, Rcvr advertises any spare room by including value of RcvWindow in segments, and the sender limits unACKed data to RcvWindow. TCP flow control also ensures that there is no overflow of the receive buffer. Round-trip Time Estimation and Timeout TCP Round Trip Time and Timeout are usually longer than RTT, but RTT varies, and has a slow reaction to segment loss. SampleRTT is measured time from segment transmission until ACK receipt, ignore retransmissions, and will vary, want estimated RTT â€Å"smoother† Round-trip time samples arrive with new ACKs. The RTT sample is computed as the difference between the current time and a time echo field in the ACK packet. When the first sample is taken, its value is used as the initial value for srtt. Half the first sample is used as the initial value for rttvar. (Round-Trip Time Estimation and RTO Timeout Selection) There are often problems due to timeouts, including the restriction of the sender that is compelled to wait until a timeout, and is able to do nothing during this period. Also, the first segment in the sliding window is often not acked, and retransmission becomes necessary, waiting again one RTT before the segment flow continues. It should be noted that on rece iving the later segments, the receiver sends back ACKs. Estimated RTT EstimatedRTT = 0.875 * EstimatedRTT + 0.125 * SampleRTT DevRTT DevRTT = (1 0.25) * DevRTT + | SampleRTT – EstimatedRTT Timeout interval TimeoutInterval = EstimatedRTT + 4 * DevRTT The integrated services (IntServ) and DiffServ (Differentiated Services) architecture are two architectures that have been proposed for the provision of and guaranteeing of quality of service (QoS) over the internet. Whereas the Intserv framework is developed within the IETF to provide individualized QoS guarantees to individual application sessions, Diffserv is geared towards enabling the handling of different classes of traffic in various ways on the internet. These two architectures represent the IETF’s current standards for provision of QoS guarantees, although neither Intserv nor Diffserv have taken off or found widespread acceptance on the web. (a) Integrated Service Architecture In compute r networking, the integrated services (IntServ) architecture is an architecture that specifies the elements for the guaranteeing of quality of service (QoS) on the network. For instance, IntServ can be used to allow sound and video to be sent over a network to the receiver without getting interrupted. IntServ specifies a fine-grained Quality of service system, in contrast to DiffServs coarse-grained system of control. In the IntServ architecture, the idea is that each router inside a system implements IntServ, and applications which require various types of guarantees have to make individual reservations. Flow Specs are used to describe the purpose of the reservation, and the underlying mechanism that signals it across the network is called RSVP. TSPECs include token bucket algorithm parameters. The idea is that there is a token bucket which slowly fills up with tokens, arriving at a constant rate. Every packet which is sent requires a token, and if there are no tokens, then i t cannot be sent. Thus, the rate at which tokens arrive dictates the average rate of traffic flow, while the depth of the bucket dictates how large the traffic is allowed to be. TSPECs typically just specify the token rate and the bucket depth. For example, a video with a refresh rate of 75 frames per second, with each frame taking 10 packets, might specify a token rate of 750Hz, and a bucket depth of only 10. The bucket depth would be sufficient to accommodate the burst associated with sending an entire frame all at once. On the other hand, a conversation would need a lower token rate, but a much higher bucket depth. This is because there are often pauses in conversations, so they can make do with fewer tokens by not sending the gaps between words and sentences. However, this means the bucket depth needs to be increased to compensate for the traffic being larger. (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Integrated_services) (b) Differentiated Service Architecture The RFC 2475 (An Architecture for Differentiated Services) was published In 1998, by the IETF. Presently, DiffServ has widely replaced other Layer 3 Quality of Service mechanisms (such as IntServ), as the basic protocol that routers use to provide different service levels. DiffServ (Differentiated Services) architecture is a computer networking architecture which specifies a scalable, less complex, coarse-grained mechanism for the classification, management of network traffic and for provision of QoS (Quality of Service) guarantees on modern IP networks. For instance, DiffServ can be used for providing low-latency, guaranteed service (GS) to video, voice or other critical network traffic, while ensuring simple best-effort traffic guarantees to non-critical network services like file transfers and web traffic. Most of the proposed Quality of Service mechanisms which allowed these services to co-exist were complicated and did not adequately meet the demands Internet users because modern data ne tworks carry various kinds of services like streaming music, video, voice, email and also web pages. It would probably be difficult to implement Intserv in the core of the internet because most of the communication between computers connected to the Internet is based on a client/server structural design. This Client/server describes a structure involving the connection of one computer to another for the purpose of giving work instructions or asking it questions. In an arrangement like this, the particular computer that questions and gives out instructions is the client, while the computer that provides answers to the asked questions and responds to the work instructions is the server. The same terms are used to describe the software programs that facilitate the asking and answering. A client application, for instance, presents an on-screen interface for the user to work with at the client computer; the server application welcomes the client and knows how to respond correctly t o the clients commands. Any file server or PC can be adapted for use as an Internet server, however a dedicated computer should be chosen. Anyone with a computer and modem can join this network by using a standard phone. Dedicating the server that is, using a computer as a server only helps avoid some security and basic problems that result from sharing the functions of the server. To gain access to the Internet you will require an engineer to install the broadband modem. Then you will be able to use the server to network the Internet on all machines on a network. (www.redbooks.ibm.com/redbooks/pdfs/sg246380.pdf) TASK 5 Network security These days, computers are used for everything from shopping and communication to banking and investment. Intruders into a network system (or hackers) do not care about the privacy or identity of network users. Their aim is to gain control of computers on the network so that they can use these systems to launch attacks on other computer systems. Therefore people who use the network for these purposes must be protected from unknown strangers who try to read their sensitive documents, or use their computer to attack other systems, and send forged email, or access their personal information (such as their bank or other financial statements) Security Clauses The International Organisation for Standardizations (ISOs) 17799: 2005 Standard is a code of practice for information security management which provides a broad, non-technical framework for establishing efficient IT controls. The ISO 17799 Standard consists of 11 clauses that are divided into one or more security categories for a total of 39 security categories The security clauses of the ISO standard 17799:2005- code of practice for Information Security Management include: The security Policy clause Organizing Information Security Asset Management. Human Resources Security. Physical and Environmental Security. Communications and Operations. Access Control. Information Systems Acquisition, Development, and Maintenance. Information Security Incident Management. Business Continuity Management. Compliance. (https://www.theiia.org/ITAuditArchive/index.cfm?act=ITAudit.printiiid=467aid=2209) Here is a brief description of the more recent version of these security clauses: Security Policy: Security policies are the foundation of the security framework and provide direction and information on the companys security posture. This clause states that support for information security should be done in accordance with the companys security policy. Organizing Information Security: This clause addresses the establishment and organizational structure of the security program, including the appropriate management framework for security policy, how information assets should be secured from third parties, and how information security is maintained when processing is outsourced. Asset Management: This clause describes best practices for classifying and protecting assets, including data, software, hardware, and utilities. The clause also provides information on how to classify data, how data should be handled, and how to protect data assets adequately. Human Resources Secur ity: This clause describes best practices for personnel management, including hiring practices, termination procedures, employee training on security controls, dissemination of security policies, and use of incident response procedures. Physical and Environmental Security: As the name implies, this clause addresses the different physical and environmental aspects of security, including best practices organizations can use to mitigate service interruptions, prevent unauthorized physical access, or minimize theft of corporate resources. Communications and Operations: This clause discusses the requirements pertaining to the management and operation of systems and electronic information. Examples of controls to audit in this area include system planning, network management, and e-mail and e-commerce security. Access Control: This security clause describes how access to corporate assets should be managed, including access to digital and nondigital information, as well as network resources. Information Systems Acquisitions, Development, and Maintenance: This section discusses the development of IT systems, including applications created by third-parties, and how security should be incorporated during the development phase. Information Security Incident Management: This clause identifies best practices for communicating information security issues and weaknesses, such as reporting and escalation procedures. Once established, auditors can review existing controls to determine if the company has adequate procedures in place to handle security incidents. Business Continuity Management: The 10th security clause provides information on disaster recovery and business continuity planning. Actions auditors should review include how plans are developed, maintained, tested, and validated, and whether or not the plans address critical business operation components. Compliance: The final clause provides valuable information auditors can use when identifying the compliance level of systems and controls with internal security policies, industry-specific regulations, and government legislation. (Edmead, M. T. 2006 retrieved from https://www.theiia.org/ITAuditArchive/?aid=2209iid=467) The standard, which was updated in June 2005 to reflect changes in the field of information security, provides a high-level view of information security from different angles and a comprehensive set of information security best practices. More specifically, ISO 17799 is designed for companies that wish to develop effective information security management practices and enhance their IT security efforts. Control Objectives The ISO 17799 Standard contains 11 clauses which are split into security categories, with each category having a clear control objective. There are a total of 39 security categories in the standard. The control objectives in the clauses are designed to meet the risk assessment requirements and they can serve as a practical guideline or common basis for development of effective security management practices and organisational security standards. Therefore, if a company is compliant with the ISO/IEC 17799 Standard, it will most likely meet IT management requirements found in other laws and regulations. However, because different standards strive for different overall objectives, auditors should point out that compliance with 17799 alone will not meet all of the requirements needed for compliance with other laws and regulations. Establishing an ISO/IEC 17799 compliance program could enhance a companys information security controls and IT environment greatly. Conducting an audit evaluation of the standard provides organizations with a quick snapshot of the security infrastructure. Based on this snapshot, senior managers can obtain a high-level view of how well information security is being implemented across the IT environment. In fact, the evaluation can highlight gaps present in security controls and identify areas for improvement. In addition, organizations looking to enhance their IT and security controls could keep in mind other ISO standards, especially current and future standards from the 27000 series, which the ISO has set aside for guidance on security best practices. (Edmead, M. T. 2006 retrieved from https://www.theiia.org/ITAuditArchive/?aid=2209iid=467) Tree Topology Tree topologies bind multiple star topologies together onto a bus. In its most simple form, only hub devices are directly connected to the tree bus and the hubs function as the root of the device tree. This bus/star hybrid approach supports future expandability of the network much better than a bus (limited in the number of devices due to the broadcast traffic it generates) or a star (limited by the number of hub ports) alone. Topologies remain an important part of network design theory. It is very simple to build a home or small business network without understanding the difference between a bus design and a star design, but understanding the concepts behind these gives you a deeper understanding of important elements like hubs, broadcasts, ports, and routes. (www.redbooks.ibm.com/redbooks/pdfs/sg246380.pdf) Use of the ring topology should be considered for use in medium sized companies, and the ring topology would also be the best topology for small companies because it is ensures ease of data transfer. Ring Topology In a ring network, there are two neighbors for each device, so as to enable communication. Messages are passed in the same direction, through a ring which is effectively either counterclockwise or clockwise. If any cable or device fails, this will break the loop and could disable the entire network. Bus Topology Bus networks utilize a common backbone to connect various devices. This backbone, which is a single cable, functions as a shared medium of communication which the devices tap into or attach to, with an interface connector. A device wanting to communicate with another device on the network sends a broadcast message onto the wire that all other devices see, but only the intended recipient actually accepts and processes the message. (www.redbooks.ibm.com/redbooks/pdfs/sg246380.pdf) Star Topology The star topology is used in a lot of home networks. A star network consists of a central connection point or hub that can be in the form of an actual hub, or a switch. Usually, devices will connect to the switch or hub by an Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP) Ethernet. Compared to the bus topology, a star network generally requires more cable, but a failure in any star network cable will only take down one computers network access and not the entire LAN. If the hub fails, however, the entire network also fails. (www.redbooks.ibm.com/redbooks/pdfs/sg246380.pdf) Relating the security clauses and control objectives to an organisation In an organisation like the Nurht’s Institute of Information Technology (NIIT), the above mentioned security clauses and control objectives provide a high-level view of information security from different angles and a comprehensive set of information best security practices. Also, the ISO 17799 is designed for companies like NIIT, which aim to enhance their IT security, and to develop effective information security management practices. At NIIT, the local network relies to a considerable degree, on the correct implementation of these security practices and other algorithms so as to avoid congestion collapse, and preserve network stability. An attacker or hacker on the network can cause TCP endpoints to react in a more aggressive way in the face of congestion, by the forging of excessive data acknowledgments, or excess duplicate acknowledgments. Such an attack could possibly cause a portion of the network to go into congestion collapse. The Security Policy clause states that â€Å"support for information security should be done in accordance with the companys security policy.† (Edmead, M. T. 2006). This provides a foundation of the security framework at NIIT, and also provides information and direction on the organisation’s security posture. For instance, this clause helps the company auditors to determine whether the security policy of the company is properly maintained, and also if indeed it is to be disseminated to every employee. The Organizing Information Security clause stipulates that there should be appropriate management framework for the organisation’s security policy. This takes care of the organizational structure of NIIT’s security program, including the right security policy management framework, the securing of information assets from third parties, and the maintenance of information security during outsourced processing. At NIIT, the Security clauses and control objectives define the companyâ€℠¢s stand on security and also help to identify the vital areas considered when implementing IT controls. The ISO/IEC 17799s 11 security clauses enable NIIT to accomplish its security objectives by providing a comprehensive set of information security best practices for the company to utilize for enhancement of its IT infrastructure. Conclusion Different businesses require different computer networks, because the type of network utilized in an organisation must be suitable for the organisation. It is advisable for smaller businesses to use the LAN type of network because it is more reliable. The WAN and MAN would be ideal for larger companies, but if an organisation decides to expand, they can then change the type of network they have in use. If an organisation decides to go international, then a Wireless Area Network can be very useful Also, small companies should endeavor to set up their network by using a client/server approach. This would help the company to be more secure and enable them to keep in touch with the activities of others are doing. The client/server would be much better than a peer-to-peer network, it would be more cost-effective. On the average, most organisations have to spend a good amount of money and resources to procure and maintain a reliable and successful network that will be and easy to m aintain in the long run. For TCP Congestion Control, when CongWin is below Threshold, sender in slow-start phase, window grows exponentially. If CongWin is above Threshold, sender is in congestion-avoidance phase, window grows linearly. When a triple duplicate ACK occurs, Threshold set to CongWin/2 and CongWin set to Threshold, and threshold set to CongWin/2 and CongWin is set to 1 MSS when a timeout occurs. For a Small Office/Home Office (SOHO), networks such as wireless networks are very suitable. In such a network, there won’t be any need to run wires through walls and under carpets for connectivity. The SOHO user need not worry about plugging their laptop into docking stations every time they come into the office or fumble for clumsy and unattractive network cabling. Wireless networking provides connectivity without the hassle and cost of wiring and expensive docking stations. Also, as the business or home office grows or shrinks, the need for wiring new computer s to the network is nonexistent. If the business moves, the network is ready for use as soon as the computers are moved. For the wired impossible networks such as those that might be found in warehouses, wireless will always be the only attractive alternative. As wireless speeds increase, these users have only brighter days in their future. (https://www.nextstep.ir/network.shtml) It is essential to note that the computer network installed in an organisation represents more than just a simple change in the method by which employees communicate. The impact of a particular computer network may dramatically affect the way employees in an organisation work and also affect the way they think. Bibliography Business Editors High-Tech Writers. (2003, July 22). International VoIP Council Launches Fax-Over-IP Working Group. Business Wire. Retrieved July 28, 2003 from ProQuest database. Career Directions (2001 October). Tech Directions, 61(3), 28 Retrieved July 21, 2003 from EBSCOhost database Edmead, M. T. (2006) Are You Familiar with the Most Recent ISO/IEC 17799 Changes? (Retrieved from https://www.theiia.org/ITAuditArchive/?aid=2209iid=467) FitzGerald, J. (1999), Business Data Communications And Networking Pub: John Wiley Sons Forouzan, B. (1998), Introduction To Data Communications And Networking Pub: Mc- Graw Hill https://www.theiia.org/itaudit https://www.theiia.org/ITAuditArchive/index.cfm?act=ITAudit.printiiid=467aid=2209 https://www.psc.edu/networking/projects/tcpfriendly/ ISO/IEC 17799:2000 – Code of practice for information security management Published by ISO and the British Standards Institute [https://www.iso.org/] I SO/IEC 17799:2005, Information technology – Security techniques – Code of practice for information security management. Published by ISO [https://www.iso.org/iso/en/prods-services/popstds/informationsecurity.html] Kurose, J. F. Ross, K. W. 2002. Computer Networking A Top-Down Approach Featuring the Internet, 2nd Edition, ISBN: 0-321-17644-8 (the international edition), ISBN: 0-201-97699-4, published by Addison-Wesley, 2002 www.awl.com/cs Ming, D. R. Sudama (1992) NETWORK MONITORING EXPLAINED: DESIGN AND APPLICATION Pub: Ellis Horwood Rigney, S. (1995) NETWORK PLANNING AND MANAGMENT YOUR PERSONAL CONSALTANT Round-Trip Time Estimation and RTO Timeout Selection (retrieved from https://netlab.cse.yzu.edu.tw/ns2/html/doc/node368.html) Shafer, M. (2001, June 11). Careers not so secure? Network Computing, 12(12), 130- Retrieved July 22, 2003 from EBSCOhost database Stevens, W. and Allman, M. (1998) TCP Implementation Working Group (retrieved from https://www.ietf.org/proceedings/98aug/I-D/draft-ietf-tcpimpl-cong-control-00.txt) Watson, S (2002). The Network Troubleshooters. Computerworld 36(38), 54. (Retrieved July 21, 2003 from EBSCOhost database) Wesley, A. (2000), Internet Users Guide to Network Resource Tools 1st Ed, Pub: Netskils www.microsoft.co.uk www.apple.com www.apple.co.uk www.bized.com https://www.nextstep.ir/network.shtml www.novell.com www.apple.com/business www.microsoft.com/networking/e-mails www.engin.umich.edu www.microsoft.com

Friday, December 27, 2019

Movie Analysis The Game - 989 Words

The game toggles back and forth with scenes that put the player in control of exploring the environment as well as following the games guideline. There lyes a moral misconception in the game where the player is introduced to believe their decisions effect a different outcome to how the storyline will turn out. Once starting each episode, a black screen displays the words, â€Å"This game series adapts to the choices you make. The story is tailored by how you play†. On the contrary to this seemingly straightforward statement, no matter how believable the game makes it seem, the players â€Å"online† experience fades in and out. The player originally feels obligated to be responsible for certain characters traumatic deaths, but in actuality of the game, is not since the outcome is pre-planned regardless of choice. Offline and online continuity (swapping back an forth between â€Å"online† and â€Å"offline†) proves the false justification of â€Å"The Walki ng Dead[s]† claims and puts the player in seemingly relevant irrelevant scenarios. Telltales game exploits the players empathy that causes the player to think they are following an inter(re)activity through irrelevant decision making. An article by Smethurst, Toby, and Stef Craps, â€Å"Playing with Trauma: Interreactivity, Empathy and Complicity in The Walking Dead Video Game.†, suggests the â€Å"games ability to involve the player in the game world through inter(re)activity†(Smethurst and Craps). Smethurst and Craps illuminate on complicity, whereShow MoreRelatedMovie Analysis : The Game 1829 Words   |  8 Pagesrole-playing game takes place on the historical planet of Mars, which is surprisingly teeming with life, similar to Spiders previous game, Mars: War Logs. Technomancer puts you in the shoes of an infamous technomancer, Zachariah, who later becomes a wanted man after being forced to flee his home, the Abundance, one of the many corporations on Mars, later ingame. The game, like many other role-playing games, starts you off with the creation of your character. Though where this game differs fromRead MoreAnalysis Of The Movie The Hunger Games 891 Words   |  4 PagesSummarize the movie from a sociological perspective (approximately 1 page) : In the film of The Hunger Games, there are districts that are stratified, the bottom of the districts are those with the least amount of resources to survive. Those at the top control the resources by hosting an annual game that will test the strength and courage of two youth, â€Å"tributes,† to survive in a human hunting game. One male and one female are chosen at random from each district to participate in the game. There willRead MoreCritical Analysis Of The Movie Hunger Games1291 Words   |  6 PagesIn this essay, I will do a critical analysis of the movie â€Å"Hunger Games,† the short story â€Å"The Story of an Hour,† and Taylor Swift’s music video â€Å"Look What Y ou Make Me Do† in terms of the use of symbolism, and the new self. The Hunger Games  follows 16-year-old  Katniss Everdeen, a girl from District 12 who volunteers for the 74th Hunger Games in place of her younger sister  Primrose Everdeen. The games itself is a competition to see who’s the strongest. The story of an Hour is a short story that describesRead MoreAnalysis Of The Movie The Hunger Games 2215 Words   |  9 PagesChange in Feminism in the Cinema World The Hunger Games which is directed by Garry Ross is story in land of Panem which has grown out of the cadaverous ruins of what one time was known as North America, 74 years ago. The capitol introduced the hunger games as a reminder to the twelve districts of its authority and punishment for rebellion. Every year a boy and a girl from each district, who are known as Tributes, and they are of aged between 12 and 18. The names are chosen randomly in reaping ceremoniesRead MoreMovie Analysis : Video Games Essay2102 Words   |  9 Pagesuprising--it’s video games. The twenty-first century as we all know is the age of the millennials and technology plays a huge role in everyone s life as it continues to improve as we advance through the years. One major concept that separates storytelling in books and movies from video games is that in video games, you are the character. You are put in the experience and call the shots on the decisions that the character has to make in the game. T he main thing that is so captivating about video games is thatRead MoreThe Hunger Games Movie Analysis1935 Words   |  8 PagesHunger Games directed by Gary Ross, it focuses primarily on the protagonist, Katniss Everdeen, who volunteers to partake the Hunger games tribute that occurs once a year. Every year in each district, each of the two members of each gender is selected to fight the annual Hunger Games. Katniss intends to be the center of attention of this film, which gives the audiences a better insight of the movie, also revealing additional themes that the author is trying to convey. At first sight, this movie mayRead MoreAnalysis Of The Movie The Hunger Games 2249 Words   |  9 Pagesbecause it determines which boy and girl, ages 12 to 18, will serve as the district’s tributes in the Hunger Games. Each of the 12 districts must draw two tributes, and those tributes are sent to an arena where they fight to the death until only one tribute remains alive. The victor’s district is given gifts, mainly food, and the victor returns home. The Capitol of Panem puts on the Games to remind and punish the 12 districts of the Dark Days, which was when the 13th district was destroyed for attemptingRead MoreAnalysis Of The Movie Nina s Games 1652 Words   |  7 Pagesto them based on a true story game. Some are pretty silly and other are serious but most meet in the middle of those two but they are all honest about the topics that they are covering without sugar coating it. One of her most notable game that just went absolutely went viral last year is a ga me called How Do You Do It. Where you play as a young version of Nina and are mashing these dolls together to trying to figure out how sex works. Cibele like most off Nina’s games is on a true story about herselfRead MoreAnalysis Of The Movie Return Streak And Winning A Playoff Game 967 Words   |  4 Pagesbreaking Manassas’s losing streak and winning a playoff game. In this documentary there was a mental skill that stood out the most, in particular, group dynamics/ cohesion. Throughout the team’s football season coach Courtney helps the boys feel closer with their fellow teammates, thus, resulting in each individual to look out for one another. With that said, in the movie the team worked together to achieve a common goal which was to win a playoff game while also working on individual interpersonal relationshipsRead MoreAnalysis Of The Movie The Imitation Game By Alan Turing1334 Words   |  6 PagesWhat is socially appropriate? How or more so who decides what is appropriate? These questions have been asked, debated, and fought over since the dawn of civilization. The rhetor of the movie The Imitation Game integrates these questions into the true story of Alan Turing and the people around him. The rhetor allows these questions of appropriateness to be narrowed down to two very influential people in history to give these large, foundat ional questions a more personal touch, and for the audience

Thursday, December 19, 2019

Analysis Of Edgar Allan Poe s The Cask Of Amontillado

The American Romantic/ Gothic period was basically the Renaissance of American literature. American romantics were influenced by eras that before them, and their writings were a different reaction against the philosophy of the previous eras. With this being said, American Romanticism grew from salvation, and guilt, as they excitedly developed their own unique style of writing. American romantic authors had a strong sense of general identity and pride in being American. For this reason, American authors during this time had a discrete desire to develop their own unique character separate from British literature. In order to accomplish this goal, the poet Edgar Allan Poe was rebellious and personal in his writing; and this explains the extraordinary creativity found throughout his work. Edgar Allan Poe had a unique and dark form writing style the mysterious style of writing showed emotion and drama. He used the themes of Gothic, death of the women he loved, and good vs. evil. These for ms of writing styles are shown in â€Å"The Cask of Amontillado†, â€Å"The Raven†, and â€Å"Tell Tale Heart.† It demonstrates all the major aspects of the American Romantic revolution: rejection of classicism, eager naivety, and unusual detachment regarding time and space. The story of â€Å"The Cast of Amontillado† is a classic Gothic horror tale of a mad man wanting revenge. This short story can be quite frightening, because the narrator is able to keep a calm voice during his manipulation and killing ofShow MoreRelatedA Psychoanalytical Analysis Of Edgar Allan Poe s The Cask Of Amontillado 1758 Words   |  8 PagesA Psychoanalytical Analysis of Edgar Allan Poe s Use of Characterization in The Cask of Amontillado and The Tell-Tale Heart The mind is like an iceberg, it floats with one-seventh of its bulk above water. -From Sigmund Freud Sigmund Freud s topography model of the mind explains that a person s psyche has three levels of consciousness: 1.) the conscious, which holds what a person is aware of; 2.) the preconscious, which stores thoughts and information; and 3.) the unconscious, which warehousesRead MoreAnalysis Of Edgar Allan Poe s The Cask Of Amontillado 945 Words   |  4 Pagestrust, but do we truly know anyone in the way we think? In â€Å"The Cask of Amontillado† written by Edgar Allan Poe, a man named Fortunato is about to find out what kind of ‘friend’ Montresor really is. Montresor shows himself to be friendly with Fortunato, but deep down he feels nothing but hate for him. In different ways, both of these men are proud and appear upper class, yet both have faults which will be there undoing. Edgar Allan Poe uses language in a way which provides an understanding of theRead MoreAn Analysis Of Edgar Allan Poe s Cask Of Amontillado 873 Words   |  4 Pagesfiguratively repres ents or stands for something else (Mays, A12). In the short story Cask of Amontillado, Edgar Allan Poe uses symbolism to establish the true meaning of revenge behind this story. In short, this story is based upon an act of revenge carried out by Montresor over Fortunato. Montresor lures Fortunato into â€Å"the catacombs of the Montresors† where he carries out his plan of revenge by ultimately killing Fortunato (Poe, 109). The incorporation of precise decisions on the title, the characters namesRead MoreAnalysis Of Edgar Allan Poe s The Cask Of Amontillado 1912 Words   |  8 PagesEdgar Allan Poe is an American author whose writing style, full of mysteries and macabre, has fascinated generations. However, his works are more than just thrillers and morbidities. The writings of this author often contain other themes such as companionship, family bonds, longing passion, and perhaps the strongest of these is revenge. â€Å"The Cask of Amontillado† and â€Å"Hop-Frog; o r, The Eight Chained Ourang-Outangs† are two short stories that certainly demonstrate a recurring theme of revenge. PoeRead MoreAnalysis Of Edgar Allan Poe s The Cask Of Amontillado 1200 Words   |  5 Pages2015 Life of Edgar Allan Poe Edgar Allan Poe has become America’s first literary star. His tales or short stories are popular all over the world! Poe lived an unhappy life, when people came in contact with this â€Å"saddest strangest figure in American literary history† they were aware of some of his qualities (Fagin 1). Edgar Allan’s has a complex personality. Poe excelled at creating Gothic and Horror stories. Poe works with realism in â€Å"The Cask of Amontillado† (Buranelli 19). Poe writes about himselfRead MoreAnalysis Of Edgar Allan Poe s The Cask Of Amontillado Essay1267 Words   |  6 Pagessignificance of Edgar Allan Poe s style of writing, which commands the use of both death and love most frequently throughout his works, are what really made his literary works become so well known. The nature of death and on questions about the afterlife is usually Poe’s main focus in most of his literary works. A woman who has died at the height of her youth and beauty, leav ing a lover behind to mourn. Death and Love, these two main themes are discussed throughout Edgar Allan Poe s literary workRead MoreAnalysis Of Edgar Allan Poe s The Cask Of Amontillado 1792 Words   |  8 Pagesmind or intelligence; not to be confused with opinion or belief â€Å"(Roberts, 119). Edgar Allan Poe famously uses point of view in all of his writings. According to Gargano, â€Å"An objective narrator is telling a terrible story objectively might be frightening, but even more frightening is a man telling without emotion the story of his own terrible crime†(Gargano, 52). In Poe’s story stories: â€Å"The Cask of Amontillado†, â€Å"Black Cat†, â€Å"The Fall of the House of Usher†, and â€Å"The Tell Tale Heart† he usesRead MoreEdgar Allan Poe s The Cask Of Amontillado1232 Words   |  5 Pagesabout the text â€Å"The Cask of Amontillado† by Edgar Allan Poe, some sources will be used to support the thesis statement, which is â€Å"The author uses irony in the text to illustrate the murder of Fortunado by Montresor, who seeks salvation through death†. Also, there is going to be an analysis on the irony found in the text in relation with the story. To support this thesis, I am going to use some examples from some sources such as â€Å"Literary analysis: Irony in The Cask of Amontillado by Amelia TibbettRead MoreThe Oval Portrait By Edgar Allan Poe1490 Words   |  6 PagesEdgar Allan Poe’s Short Stories Edgar Allan Poe is a much known author. He is known for writing dark and mysterious stories and poems. â€Å"His imaginative storytelling led to literary innovations, earning him the nickname Father of the Detective Story (Edgar Allan Poe Biography.com). When writing stories he wanted the readers to have that one emotion or feeling when reading his writing. Poe has very many stories he is known for two of those short stories being; â€Å"The Oval Portrait† and â€Å"The Cask ofRead MoreThe Cask Of Amontillado By Edgar Allan Poe1575 Words   |  7 Pagescommitted the perfect murder in just such a tale, â€Å"The Cask of Amontillado.† Montresor plots and kills an unwary friend/foe during carnival time for motives that are unclear. The author of this tale, Edgar Allan Poe, influenced by his somewhat tragic life and one of the most influential Gothic writers, uses symbolism and irony to show the multitude of complicated motives of the narrator in his famous horror story . Upon examining Edgar Allan Poe’s life, one is not surprised that he chooses to write

Tuesday, December 10, 2019

The Academic Essay Rough Draft free essay sample

Lastly this essay will discuss referencing and the format used in an academic essay. To begin with, what is an academic essay and what does one use it for? At university level one will be required to write many academic essays. Essays are written for many reasons, to explore, challenge, convince, entertain, etc. The academic essay is usually written to answer a question. It involves accurate research to inform the reader correctly. There is no foolproof method to produce a quality assignment. Every student will approach it differently; however, there are basic steps that have to be followed when writing an academic essay (Sessile, 1999).When doing research e should have an understanding of what is required, attending lectures or classes will help with this (Aries, 2010:4). Research is a very important part to an essay. Without research we will not be able to give the reader a true depiction of information. Extensive research is fundamental to providing the reader with a wide range of knowledge. When doing research one should remember to use many different sources. Using techniques such as skimming, over viewing and scanning will help you to gain an overall understanding of the information being researched quickly. The topic of your assignment should always be kept in mind. One should not go overboard, stick to the relevance of your topic when doing research. Always remember to take bibliographic details of the sources from where the information was sourced (Sessile, 1999). When looking for research be sure the source that is being used is creditable, especially when using the internet. Using a source such as Wisped is not safe; the information on that website is not all of the time accurate. If one is not sure about the information that has been obtained double check it. When planning ones essay there are many things to look at. A common failing in essays is the absence of any sense of overall unity and coherence. Teachers and lecturers frequently complain that, in writing their essays, students seem to write a paragraph and then pause to think, now what can say next? , then another paragraph, another pause and so on. The points made in the essay seem to have been set down in random order, with little connection between them, and no sense of a coherently developing argument (Viziers, 1 992: 14) (Aries, 2010:4). As we can see what Viziers is stating is that it is essential to plan, without planning one will end up with a mess.Once the information has been gathered one has to structure it. Most academic essays follow three elements: introduction, body and conclusion (Sessile, 1999). The introduction should be a short paragraph introducing the topic on which the essay will be written about. It should show what aspects your essay will be focusing on. The introduction is important in grabbing the readers attention. The body follows the introduction. It will be made up of many paragraphs. Each paragraph will discuss a topic in detail. The order of the paragraphs should be logical.One must use reliable evidence in your body helping to make the information as accurate as possible. Lastly you will have a conclusion. The conclusion will be a brief summary of the points you have discussed. The conclusion should not be long, only a short paragraph (Aries: 2010:5). When writing an academic essay there is a few things that can guide you. Never use a metaphor, simile or other figure of speech which you are used to seeing in text. Do not use a long word where a short one will be fine. If it is possible to cut out a word then cut it out. Never use the passive when you can use the active.Dont use scientific words or jargon when you can use plain English (Door, 2010). Do not use first errors referencing or second person referencing. An academic essay should always have a rough draft. The rough draught should be the first ideas that come to your head. It is okay if it IS not well structured or the length requirement. Your final draft should be well edited; spell checked and be in the correct format. This is the draft that will be assessed (Crisis, 2008). Plagiarism means: to copy someone elses ideas, words, or work and pretend that they are your own (Oxford Advanced Learners Dictionary, 201 0: 1 1 15).Plagiarism is an extremely serious matter when it comes to writing an essay. Stealing someone elses ideas is a crime and should not be taken lightly. Each idea used needs to be acknowledged with a footnote or in-text citation. If a direct quote is going to be used it must be enclosed in quotation marks. Ideas that have been gained from a source must be attributed to that source. All the sources that have been used must be listed in a source list or a bibliography. The copyright act that is used in the academic field states: Never copy more than a reasonable portion of work, I. . Not more than 10% of a book or one article in a single periodical/journal. The act (98 of 1 978) tabulates that photocopying is permitted only if not more than one copy of a reasonable portion of work is made, having regard to the totality and meaning of the work. Students may make only one copy for private research or study purposes only (Potter, 2012:9). Failure to do so can result in a fine or imprisonment (Burger, 1992). The best way to avoid plagiarism is to reference correctly. Referencing is giving acknowledgement to the sources that you have used (Potter, 201 2:11).In academic writing different referencing systems are used, each with their own style and rules. The Harvard method, PAP, Vancouver and footnotes are all used by different faculties. Why exactly should you reference? It shows that appropriate information has been consulted and that your ideas relate to those of the experts, this ads authority to your argument. Correct referencing will also enable the reader to locate and consult the information that has been used to verify your data (2003). In following these basic guidelines one should be able to right an academic essay of high standards. Important things to remember is once all your research is gathered proper planning will ensure that your essay is well trucked and not a mess. Following the basic guidelines to the layout will give the reader good understanding of the text that is being read. Plagiarism is a crime and referencing should be done correctly to give credit where it is due and to avoid the implications of theft. With these ideas in mind ones essay will be a success. The Academic Essay: Final Draft will discuss all the things to know in regard to writing an academic essay.Firstly this essay will discuss how to conduct research for an academic essay, and explain in detail what research should be considered. Secondly this essay ill also discuss the planning and drafting of an academic essay of which the exact format will be assessed. Thirdly this essay will also discuss plagiarism and how it should not be committed in any form of academic writing. Lastly this essay will discuss referencing and the format used in an academic essay. To begin with, what is an academic essay and what is it used for? At university level one will be required to write many academic essays.Essays are written for many reasons, to explore, challenge, convince, entertain, etc. The academic essay is usually written to answer a question. It involves accurate research to inform the reader correctly. There is no foolproof method to produce a quality assignment. Every student will approach an essay differently; however, there are basic steps that have to be followed when writing an academic essay (Sessile, 1999). When doing research a basic understanding is required, attending lectures or classes will help with this (Aries, 2010:4). Research is a very important part to an essay.Without research the essay will not be able to give the reader a true depiction of information. Extensive research is fundamental to providing the reader with a did range of knowledge. When doing research many different sources should be used. Using techniques such as skimming, over viewing and scanning Will help to gain an overall understanding of the information being researched. The topic of the assignment should always be kept in mind. Do not go overboard, stick to the relevance of the topic when doing research. Always remember to take bibliographic details of the sources from where the information was sourced (Sessile, 1999).When looking for research make sure the source that is being used is creditable, especially when using the internet. Using a source such as Wisped is not safe; the information on that website is not accurate all Of the time. If not clear about the information that has been obtained it is better to double check it. When planning an essay there are many things to look at. A common failing in essays is the absence of any sense of overall unity and coherence. Teachers and lecturers frequently complain that, in writing their essays, students seem to write a paragraph and then pause to think, now what can I say next? , then another paragraph, another pause and so on. The points made in the essay seem to have been et down in random order, with little connection between them, and no sense of a coherently developing argument (Viziers, 1992:14) (Aries, 2010:4). Once the information has been gathered it needs to be structured. Most academic essays follow three elements: introduction, body and conclusion (Sessile, 1999). The introduction should be a short paragraph introducing the topic on which the essay will be written about. It should show what aspects the essay will be focusing on. The introduction is important in grabbing the readers attention.The body follows the introduction. It will be made up of many paragraphs. Each paragraph will discuss a topic in detail. The order of the paragraphs should be logical. Reliable evidence must be used in the body, helping to make the information as accurate as possible. Lastly there will be a conclusion. The conclusion will be a brief summary of the points that have been discussed. The conclusion should not be long, only a short paragraph (Aries: 2010:5). When writing an academic essay there is a few things that can guide a person. Never use a metaphor, simile or other figure of speech which one is used to seeing in text.Do not use a long word where a short one will be fine. If it is possible to cut out a word then cut it out. Never use the passive when the active can be used. Dont use scientific words or jargon when plain English can be used (Door, 2010). Do not use first person referencing or second person referencing. An academic essay should always have a rough draft. The rough draft should be the first ideas that come to mind. It is okay if it is not well structured or the length requirement. The final draft should be well edited; spell checked and in the correct format. This is the draft that will be assessed (Crisis, 2008). Plagiarism means: to copy someone elses ideas, rods, or work and pretend that they are your own (Oxford Advanced Learners Dictionary, 2010: 1 1 15). Plagiarism is an extremely serious matter when it comes to writing an essay. Stealing someone elses ideas is a crime and should not be taken lightly. Each idea used needs to be acknowledged with a footnote or in-text citation. If a direct quote is going to be used it must be enclosed in quotation marks. Ideas that have been gained from a source must be attributed to that source. All the sources that have been used must be listed in a source list or a bibliography. The copyright act that is used in he academic field states: Never copy more than a reasonable portion of work, I. E. Not more than 10% of a book or one article in a single periodical/ journal. The act (98 of 1978) stipulates that photocopying is permitted only if not more than one copy of a reasonable portion of work is made, having regard to the totality and meaning Of the work. Students may make only one copy for private research or study purposes only (Potter, 201 29). Failure to do so can result in a fine or imprisonment (Burger, 1992). The best way to avoid plagiarism is to reference correctly. Referencing is giving acknowledgement to the sources that has been used (Potter, 201 2:1 1 In academic writing different referencing systems are used, each with their own style and rules. The Harvard method, PAP, Vancouver and footnotes are all used by different faculties. Why exactly should one reference? It shows that appropriate information has been consulted and that the ideas relate to those of the experts, this ads authority to the argument. Correct referencing will also enable the reader to locate and consult the information that has been used to verify the data.

Tuesday, December 3, 2019

Wattpad and I Essay Example For Students

Wattpad and I Essay For as long as I could remember I have always had a strong addiction to reading. As a child I was the clichà © shy, quiet girl who would always have a book in hand and get lost in the world of the story until someone physically dragged me away. It was not until my freshman year of high school when I was introduced by a friend to the website titled Wattpad. com that I became a member of an amazing community that fit me perfectly. One of the main goals of the Wattpad discourse community is to inspire others through reading and writing. We will write a custom essay on Wattpad and I specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now Many of the members are coming together for the birthday of this amazing community and sharing how Wattpad has impacted their lives. These outstanding stories range from a solider from the army overcoming PTSD, a girl obtaining a movie deal based on her novel, a group joining the fight against bullying, and even driving eighty two year old author Gwen Madoc back to writing. Though at first sight a website about books may not seem like much to examine, Wattpad. com exhibits characteristics of a discourse community in its own right. What started off as just a little website that was created seven years ago, has transformed into place of social media interaction and an area for undiscovered or unpublished writers to get their work noticed. Through this discourse community the members, writers and readers, are able to explore diverse genres of literature from poetry to fan fiction and interact similar to a social networking outlet, like Facebook. Wattpad is a unique discourse community and unlike any other. Due to the fact that it is partly composed of a social networking site, which can be considered a discourse on its own, members are not confined to just the United States and are given the opportunity to contact others in the community internationally. The members that make up this community are the writers and the audience, which are both fundamentally crucial in order to keep this discourse alive. This website was created along with electronic books, ebooks for short, and has allowed many unknown writers to be discovered by companies such as Barnes and Noble. As a member of the Wattpad discourse community you must be familiar with the term or phrase â€Å"Watty†, which can be considered part of the lexis (473). A â€Å"Watty† or â€Å"to be up for a Watty† is when an author enters one of the largest contests worldwide. Through these seasonal contests called The Watty Awards authors are given the challenge to complete their work-short story, novel, poem, and so on- within a year to be judged, and the prizes can range from money to publishing opportunities. According to Gee, this could be considered both a secondary dominant and non-dominant discourse. A dominant discourse because of the â€Å"status or social goods† acquired and non-dominant due to the member becoming â€Å"solid† within the social networking community (485). Also as a primary discourse Wattpad provides a foundation for its members to communicate worldwide, while still being in the comfort of your own room. Entering the discourse community was difficult at first, and until now I did not realize how many obstacles I had to overcome to truly be a part of it. Four years ago as I was still trying to figure out the infamous social media site Facebook, I was simultaneously processing the inner workings of Wattpad. Thankfully my friend Dayna, who had introduced me to the community, helped me submerge myself within the discourse as a reading member. Swales defines discourse communities through several characteristics, one of those is a method of communication and feedback (472-73). In Wattpads case, this is accomplished through an online messaging, posting, and a voting system. The voting, or message system, was set in place for readers to rank the books in each genre and be able to comment or communicate with the author about their chapter/novel. .u8e23125c46568c046a614ab30b78f4cb , .u8e23125c46568c046a614ab30b78f4cb .postImageUrl , .u8e23125c46568c046a614ab30b78f4cb .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .u8e23125c46568c046a614ab30b78f4cb , .u8e23125c46568c046a614ab30b78f4cb:hover , .u8e23125c46568c046a614ab30b78f4cb:visited , .u8e23125c46568c046a614ab30b78f4cb:active { border:0!important; } .u8e23125c46568c046a614ab30b78f4cb .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .u8e23125c46568c046a614ab30b78f4cb { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .u8e23125c46568c046a614ab30b78f4cb:active , .u8e23125c46568c046a614ab30b78f4cb:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .u8e23125c46568c046a614ab30b78f4cb .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .u8e23125c46568c046a614ab30b78f4cb .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .u8e23125c46568c046a614ab30b78f4cb .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .u8e23125c46568c046a614ab30b78f4cb .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(https://artscolumbia.org/wp-content/plugins/intelly-related-posts/assets/images/simple-arrow.png)no-repeat; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .u8e23125c46568c046a614ab30b78f4cb:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .u8e23125c46568c046a614ab30b78f4cb .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .u8e23125c46568c046a614ab30b78f4cb .u8e23125c46568c046a614ab30b78f4cb-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .u8e23125c46568c046a614ab30b78f4cb:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: The Trail Of Tears EssayThrough my first few months as part of the audience in Wattpad, I found myself going through the first two areas of Wardles three modes of belonging: Engagement and Imagination trying to master the voting/message system (524). However, I did not enter the Alignment phase until I started to write stories of my own and post them for the community to critique. In doing so, I was able to take on a new form of literacy and membership with my new status in the community as a writer. Through use of multiliteracies in my new membership, as Mirabelli defines them, I was able to use the situation to react and respond on the comments made by my fellow members based upon my work (538). In obtaining my new status I now come into contact with the experts, the members who both read and write, in the community. There is no authority figure within the community other than the co-creators. The only time they take major action is during any attempts of online bullying, which they have all but ruled out of the community through a set of policies and rules that is signed by the new member at the entrance of the discourse. To be a part of a specific discourse community can be a great thing. As young students we do not even realize that many of our day-to-day activities or hobbies are considered discourse communities. When I joined the Wattpad community I had no idea that I would be able to expand my literacy skills, make new friends, and discover a part of me that I had no idea existed. I can say with absolute confidence that I will continue to be a member of the Wattpad discourse community for years to come.

Wednesday, November 27, 2019

Color Purple Essays - The Color Purple, , Term Papers

Color Purple In Alice Walker's The Color Purple Celie faces love obstacles in the beginning of the novel. eventually, she overpowers these obstructions and truimphs. One example of a love obstacle Celie faces that eventually ends in truimph can be found following one of her beatings on page 23, where he writes states "It all I can do not to cry. I make myself wood." This clearly conveys that Celie lacks love in the early portion of her life. However, she truimphs when she meets Shug Avery, who says on page 118, " I love you Miss Celie." These words show how Celie makes the transition from being unloved to being loved. Another example of a love obstacle that she truimphs is stated on page 13 where she meets Harpo. "He pick up a rock and laid my head open." Obviously, due to his vulgar actions, he has nolove for his new mother. The trimph comes later in the novel Harpo and Celie form a bond a mother would have with her son.